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**Archimedes\' Principle ( ആർക്കിമെഡീസ് പ്രിൻസിപ്പിൾ ) **

A body that is submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal in magnitude to the weight of the fluid that is displaced and directed upward along a line through the center of gravity of the displaced fluid.

**Avogadro\'s Hypothesis ( അവഗാഡ്രോ സിദ്ധാന്തം )**

Equal volumes of all gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules. It is, in fact, only true for ideal gases.

**Bernoulli\'s Equation ( ബെർണോളി സമവാക്യം )**

In an irrotational fluid, the sum of the static pressure, the weight of the fluid per unit mass times the height, and half the density times the velocity squared is constant throughout the fluid.

**Boyle\'s Law ( ബോയിൽ നിയമം )**

The product of the pressure and the volume of an ideal gas at constant temperature is constant.

**Conservation Laws ( സംരക്ഷണനിയമം )**

*Conservation of mass-energy ( ഊർജ്ജസംരക്ഷണനിയമം )*

The total mass-energy of a closed system remains constant.

*Conservation of electric charge ( വൈദ്യുതചാർജ്ജ് സംരക്ഷണനിയമം )*

The total electric charge of a closed system remains constant.

*Conservation of linear momentum ( നേർരേഖാ ആക്കസംരക്ഷണനിയമം )*

The total linear momentum of a closed system remains constant.

*Conservation of angular momentum ( വർത്തുള ആക്കസംരക്ഷണനിയമം )*

The total angular momentum of a closed system remains constant.

**Coulomb\'s Law ( കൂളംബ് നിയമം )**

This states that the force between two point charges is proportional to the algebraic product of their respective charges as well as proportional to the inverse square of the distance between them.

**Einstein\'s Mass-Energy Equation ( ഐൻസ്റ്റീന്റെ ദ്രവ്യ-ഊർജ്ജ സമവാക്യം )**

The energy E of a particle is equal to its mass M times the square of the speed of light c, giving rise to the best-known physics equation in the Universe: E = Mc^2.

**Ideal Gas Law ( ആദർശ വാതക നിയമം )**

An equation which sums up the ideal gas laws in one simple equation P V = n R T

**Newton\'s Law of universal gravitation ( ഗുരുത്വ നിയമം)**

Two bodies attract each other with equal and opposite forces; the magnitude of this force is proportional to the product of the two masses and is also proportional to the inverse square of the distance between the centers of mass of the two bodies; F = (G (m.M/r2)) e, where m and M are the masses of the two bodies, r is the distance between. the two and e is a unit vector directed from the test mass to the second.

**Newton\'s Laws of motion ( ചലന നിയമങ്ങൾ )**

**Newton\'s first law of motion**

A body continues in its state of constant velocity unless it is acted upon by an external force.

*Newton\'s second law of motion*

The net acceleration of a body is directly proportional to the net force acting on the body. Also, the net acceleration is inversely proportional to the mass of the body.

*Newton\'s third law of motion*

To every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. In a system where no external forces are present, every action force is always opposed by an equal and opposite reaction force.

**Ohm\'s Law ( ഓം നിയമം )**

The ratio of the potential difference between the ends of a conductor to the current flowing through it is constant; the constant of proportionality is called the resistance and is different for different materials.

**Pascal\'s Principle ( പാസ്കൽ സിദ്ധാന്തം)**

Pressure applied to an enclosed incompressible static fluid is transmitted undiminished to all parts of the fluid.

**Thermodynamic Laws ( താപഗതികം നിയമം)**

*First law of thermodynamics*

The change in internal energy of a system is the sum of the heat transferred to or from the system and the work done on or by the system.

*Second law of thermodynamics*

The entropy (a measure of the unavailability of a system\'s energy to do useful work) of a closed system tends to increase with time.

*Third law of thermodynamics*

For changes involving only perfect crystalline solids at absolute zero, the change of the total entropy is zero.

*Zeroth law of thermodynamics*

If two bodies are each in thermal equilibrium with a third body, then all three bodies are in thermal equilibrium with each other.

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