The Nobel Prizes are awarded annually from a fund bequeathed for that purpose by the Swedish inventor and industrialist Alfred Bernhard Nobel. They are widely regarded as the most prestigious awards given for intellectual achievement in the world and are conferred in six categories: physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, peace, and economics.
|Subject||Nobel Laureates||Research Work|
|Medicine||William Kaelin and Gregg Semenza of the US and Britain’s Peter Ratcliffe||Awarded for Discoveries on how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability, paving the way for new cancer treatments.|
|Chemistry||John B Goodenough, Stanley Whittingham, and Akira Yoshino||Awarded for developing the lithium-ion batteries. These batteries are today used in everyday items; from mobile phones to remote controls and even electric vehicles.|
|Physics||<>Canadian-American cosmologist James Peebles and Swiss astronomers Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz||<>Awarded for theoretical discoveries that have contributed to our understanding of how the universe evolved after the Big Bang.|
|Literature||Polish author Olga Tokarczuk and Austrian novelist Peter Handke||Awarded for their outstanding work in the field of literature|
|Peace||Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed||Awarded for ending 20 years of hostility with neighboring Eritrea.|
|Economics||Indian-American Abhijit Banerjee, his wife Esther Duflo, and Michael Kremer||Awarded for an experimental approach to alleviating global poverty.|